< home

In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.+
2 Now
the earth was formless and desolate,* and there was darkness upon the surface of the watery deep,*+ and God’s act i've force*+ was moving about over the surfac e of the waters.+
3  And God said: “Let there be light.” Then there was light.+
4  After that God saw that the light was good, and God began to divide the light from the darkness.
5  God
called the light Day, but the darkness he called Night.+ And there was evening and there was morning, a first day.
6  Then God said: “Let there be an expanse+ between the waters, and let there be a division between the waters and the waters.”+
7  Then God went on
to make the expanse and divided the waters beneath the expanse from the waters above the expanse.+ And it was so.
8  God called the expanse Heaven.* And there was evening and there was morning, a second day.
9  Then God said: “Let the waters under the heavens be collected together into one place, and let the dry land appear.”+ And it was so.
10  God called the dry land Earth,+ but the collecting of the waters, he called Seas.+ And God saw that it was good.+
11  Then God said: “Let the earth cause grass to sprout, seed-bearing plants and fruit trees according to their kinds, yielding fruit along with seed on the earth.” And it was so.
12  And the earth began to produce grass, seed-bearing plants+ and trees yielding fruit along with seed, according to their kinds. Then God saw that it was good.
13  And there was evening and there was morning, a third day.
14  Then God said: “Let there be luminaries*+ in the expanse of the heavens to make a division between the day and the
night,+ and they will serve as signs for seasons and for days and years.+
15  They will serve as luminaries in the expanse of the heavens to shine upon the earth.”

And it was so.
16  And God went on to make the two great luminaries, the greater luminary for dominating the day+ and the lesser luminary for dominating the night,
but also the stars.+
17  Thus God put t
hem in the expanse of the heavens to shine upon the earth
18 and to dominate by day and by night and to make a divi
s ion between the light and the darkness.+ Then God saw that it was good.
19  And there was evening and there was morning, a fourth da
y .
20  Then God said: “Let the
waters swarm with living creatures,* and let flying creatures fly above the earth across the expanse of the heavens.”*+
21  And God c
reated the great sea creatures* and all living creatures* that move and swarm in the waters according to their kinds and every winged flying creature according to its kind. And God saw that it was good.
22  With that God blessed them, saying: “Be fruitful and become many and fill the waters
of the sea,+ and let the flying creatures become many in the earth.”
23  And there was evening and there was morning, a fifth day.
24  Then God said: “Let the earth bring forth living creatures* according to their kinds, domestic animals and creeping animals* and wild animals of the earth according to their kinds.”+ And it was so.
25  And God went on to make the wild animals of the earth according to their kinds and the domestic animals according to their kinds and all the creeping animals of the ground according to their kinds. And God saw that it was good.
26  Then God said: “Let us+ make man in our image,+ according to our likeness,+ and let them have in subjection the fish of the sea and the flying creatures of the heavens and the domestic animals and all the earth and every creeping animal that is moving on the earth.”+
27  And God went on to create the man in his image, in God’s image he created him; male and female he created them.+
28  Further, God blessed them, and God said to them: “Be fruitful and become many, fill the earth+ and subdue it,+ and have in subjection+ the fish of the sea and the flying creatures of the heavens and every living creature that is moving on the earth.”
29  Then God said: “Here I have given to you every seed-bearing plant that is on the entire earth and every tree with seed-bearing fruit. Let them serve as food for you.+
30  And to every wild animal of the earth and to every flying creature of the heavens and to everything moving on the earth in which there is life,* I have given all green vegetation for food.”+ And it was so.
31 After that God saw everything he had made, and look! it was very good.+ And there was evening and there was morning, a sixth day.

Thus the heavens and the earth and everything in them* were completed.+
2  And by the seventh day, God had completed the work that he had been doing,* and he began to rest on the seventh day from all his work that he had been doing.*+
3  And God went on to bless the seventh day and to declare it sacred, for on it God has been resting from all the work that he has created, all that he purposed to make.
4  This is a history of the heavens and the earth in the time they were created, in the day that Jehovah* God made earth and heaven.+
5  No bush of the field was yet on the earth and no vegetation of the field had begun sprouting, because Jehovah God had not made it rain on the earth and there was no man to cultivate the ground.
6  But a mist would go up from the earth, and it watered the entire surface of the ground.
7  And Jehovah God went on to form the man out of dust+ from the ground and to blow into his nostrils the breath of life,+ and the man became a living person.*+
8  Further, Jehovah God planted a garden in Eʹden,+ toward the east; and there he put the man whom he had formed.+
9  Thus Jehovah God made to grow out of the ground every tree that was pleasing to look at and good for food and also the tree of life+ in the middle of the garden and the tree of the knowledge of good and bad.+
10  Now there was a river flowing out of Eʹden to water the garden, and from there it divided into four rivers.*
11  The name of the first is Piʹshon; it is the one encircling the entire land of Havʹi·lah, where there is gold.
12  The gold of that land is good. Bdellium gum and onyx stone are also there.
13  The name of the second river is Giʹhon; it is the one encircling the entire land of Cush.
14  The name of the third river is Hidʹde·kel;*+ it is the one going to the east of As·syrʹi·a.+ And the fourth river is the Eu·phraʹtes.+
15  Jehovah God took the man and settled him in the garden of Eʹden to cultivate it and to take care of it.+
16  Jehovah God also gave this command to the man: “From every tree of the garden you may eat to satisfaction.+
17  But as for the tree of the knowledge of good and bad, you must not eat from it, for in the day you eat from it you will certainly die.”+
18  Then Jehovah God said: “It is not good for the man to continue to be alone. I am going to make a helper for him, as a complement of him.”+
19  Now Jehovah God had been forming from the ground every wild animal of the field and every flying creature of the heavens, and he began bringing them to the man to see what he would call each one; and whatever the man would call each living creature,* that became its name.+
20  So the man named all the domestic animals and the flying creatures of the heavens and every wild animal of the field, but for man there was no helper as a complement of him.
21  So Jehovah God caused the man to fall into a deep sleep, and while he was sleeping, he took one of his ribs and then closed up the flesh over its place.
22  And Jehovah God built the rib that he had taken from the man into a woman, and he brought her to the man.+
23  Then the man said: “This is at last bone of my bones And flesh of my flesh. This one will be called Woman, Because from man she was taken.”+
24  That is why a man will leave his father and his mother and he will stick to* his wife, and they will become one flesh.+
25  And both of them continued to be naked,+ the man and his wife; yet they were not ashamed.

Now the serpent+ was the most cautious* of all the wild animals of the field that Jehovah God had made. So it said to the woman: “Did God really say that you must not eat from every tree of the garden?”+
2  At this the woman said to the serpent: “We may eat of the fruit of the trees of the garden.+
3  But God has said about the fruit of the tree that is in the middle of the garden:+ ‘You must not eat from it, no, you must not touch it; otherwise you will die.’”
4  At this the serpent said to the woman: “You certainly will not die.+
5  For God knows that in the very day you eat from it, your eyes will be opened and you will be like God, knowing good and bad.”+
6  Conse
quently, the woman saw that the tree was good for food and that it was something desirable to the eyes, yes, the tree was pleasing to look at. So she began taking of its fruit and eating it.+ Afterward, she also gave some to her husband when he was with her, and he began eating it.+
7  Then the eyes of both of them were opened, and they realized that they were naked. So they sewed fig leaves together and made loin
coverings for themselves.+
8  Late
r they heard the voice of Jehovah God as he was walking in the garden about the breezy part of the day, and the man and his wife hid from the face of Jehovah God among the trees of the garden.
9 And Jehovah God kept calling to the man and saying to him: “Where are you?”
10  Finally he said: “I heard your voice in the garden, but I was afraid because I was naked, so I hid myself.”
11  At that he said: “Who told you that you were naked?+ Have you eaten from the tree from which I commanded you not to eat?”+
12  The man said: “The woman whom you gave to be with me,
she gave me fruit from the tree, so I ate.”
13  Jehovah God then said to the woman: “What
is this you have done?” The woman replied: “The serpent deceived me, so I ate.”+
14  Then Jehovah God said to the serpent:+ “Because you have done this, you are the cursed one out of all the do
mestic animals and out of all the wild animals of the field. On your belly you will go, and you will eat dust all the days of your life.
15  And I will put enmity*+ between you+ and the woman+ and between your offspr
ing*+ and her offspring.*+ He will crush* your head,+ and you will strike* him in the heel.”+
16 To the woman he said: “I will greatly increase the pain of your pregnancy; in pain you will give birth to children, and your longing will be for your husband, and he will dominate you.”
17  And to Adam* he said: “Because you listened to your wife’s voice and ate from the tree concerning which I gave you this command,+ ‘You must not eat from it,’ cursed is the ground on your account.+ In pain you will eat its produce all the days of your life.+
18  It will grow thorns and thistles for you, and you must eat the vegetation of the field.
19  In the sweat of your face you will eat bread* until you return to the ground, for out of it you were taken.+ For dust you are and to dust you will return.”+
20 After this Adam named his wife Eve,* because she was to become the mother of everyone living.+
21  And Jehovah God made long garments from skins for Adam and for his wife, to clothe them.+
22  Jehovah God then said: “Here the man has become like one of us in knowing good and bad.+ Now in order that he may not put his hand out and take fruit also from the tree of life+ and eat and live forever,*—”
23  With that Jehovah God expelled him from the garden of Eʹden+ to cultivate the ground from which he had been taken.+
24  So he drove the man out, and he posted at the east of the garden of Eʹden the cherubs+ and the flaming blade of a sword that was turning continuously to guard the way to the tree of life.

Now Adam had sexual relations with his wife Eve, and she became pregnant.+ When she gave birth to Cain,+ she said: “I have produced* a male child with the help of Jehovah.”
2  Later she again gave birth, to his brother Abel.+ Abel became a shepherd of the flock, but Cain became a cultivator of the ground.
3 After some time, Cain brought some fruits of the land as an offering to Jehovah.
4  But Abel brought some firstlings of his flock,+ including their fat. While Jehovah looked with favor on Abel and on his offering,+
5  he did not look with any favor on Cain and on his offering. So Cain grew hot with anger and was dejected.*
6  Then Jehovah said to Cain: “Why are you so angry and dejected?
7  If you turn to doing good, will you not be restored to favor?* But if you do not turn to doing good, sin is crouching at the door, and its craving is to dominate you; but will you get the mastery over it?”
8  After that Cain said to his brother Abel: “Let us go over into the field.” So while they were in the field, Cain assaulted his brother Abel and killed him.+
9  Later on, Jehovah said to Cain: “Where is your brother Abel?” and he said: “I do not know. Am I my brother’s guardian?”
0 At this He said: “What have you done? Listen! Your brother’s blood is crying out to me from the ground.+
11  And now you are cursed in banishment from the ground that has opened its mouth to receive your brother’s blood from your hand.+
12  When you cu
ltivate the ground, it will not give you back its produce.* You will become a wanderer and a fugitive in the earth.”
13 At this Cain said to Jehovah: “ The punishment for my error is too great to bear.
14  Today you are drivi
ng me from the land,* and I will be hidden from your face; and I will become a wanderer and a fugitive on the earth, and anyone who finds me will certainly kill me.”
15  So Jehovah said to him: “For that reason, anyone who kills Cain will suffer vengeance seven times.” So Jehovah set up* a sign for Cain in order that no one find
ing him would s trike him.
16  Then Cain went away from befo
re Jehovah and took up residence in the land of Exile,* to the east of Eʹden.+
17  Afterward Cain had sexual relations with his wife,+ and she be
came pregnant and gave birth to Eʹnoch. Then he engaged in building a city and named the city after his son Eʹnoch.
18  La
ter Iʹrad was born to Eʹnoch. And Iʹrad became father to Me·huʹja·el, and Me·huʹja·el became father to Me·thuʹsha·el, and Me·thuʹsha·el became father to Laʹmech.
19  Laʹmech took two wives for himself. The name of the first was Aʹdah, and the name of the second was Zilʹlah.
20  Aʹdah gave birth to Jaʹbal. He was the founder of those who dwell in tents and have livestock.
21  His brother’s name was Juʹbal. He was the founder of all those who play the harp and the pipe.*
22  Also, Zilʹlah gave birth to Tuʹbal-cain, who forged every sort of tool of copper and iron. And the sister of Tuʹbal-cain was Naʹa·mah.
23  Then Laʹmech composed these words for his wives Aʹdah and Zilʹlah: “Hear my voice, you wives of Laʹmech; Give ear to my saying: A man I have killed for wounding me, Yes, a young man for striking me.
24  If 7 times Cain is to be avenged,+ Then Laʹmech 77 times.”
25  Adam again had sexual relations with his wife, and she gave birth to a son. She named him Seth*+ because, as she said, “God has appointed for me another offspring* in place of Abel, because Cain killed him.”+
26  There was also born to Seth a son, and he named him Eʹnosh.+ At
that time people began calling on the name of Jehovah.

This is the book of Adam’s history. In the day that God created Adam, he made him in the likeness of God.+
2  Male and female he created them.+ On the day they were created,+ he blessed them and named them Man.*
3  Adam lived for 130 years and then became father to a son in his likeness, in his image, and he named him Seth.+
4  After becoming father to Seth, Adam lived for 800 years. And he became father to sons and da
5  So all the days of Adam’s l
ife amounted to 930 years, and then he died.+
6  Seth lived for 105 years and then beca
me father toEʹnosh.+
7  After becoming father to Eʹnosh, Seth lived for 807 years. And he became father to sons and daughters.
8  So all the days of Seth amounted to 912 years, and then he died.
9  Eʹnosh lived for 90 years and then became father to Keʹnan.
10  After becoming father to Keʹnan, Eʹnosh lived for 815 years. And he became father to sons and daughters.
11  So all the days of Eʹnosh amounted to 905 years, and then he died.
12  Keʹnan lived for 70 years and then became father to Ma·halʹa·lel.+
13  After becoming father to Ma·halʹa·lel, Keʹnan lived for 840 years. And he became father to sons and daughters.
14  So all the days of Keʹnan amounted to 910 years, and then he died.
15  Ma·halʹa·lel lived for 65 years and then became father to Jaʹred.+
16  After becoming father to Jaʹred, Ma·halʹa·lel lived for 830 years. And he became father to sons and daughters.
17  So all the days of Ma·halʹa·lel amounted to 895 years, and then he died.
18  Jaʹred lived for 162 years and then became father to Eʹnoch.+
19  After becoming father to Eʹnoch, Jaʹred lived for 800 years. And he became father to sons and daughters.
20  So all the days of Jaʹred amounted to 962 years, and then he died.
21  Eʹnoch lived for 65 years and then became father to Me·thuʹse·lah.+
22  After becoming father to Me·thuʹse·lah, Eʹnoch continued to
walk with the true God * for 300 years. And he became father to sons and daughters.
23  So
all the days of Eʹnoch amounted to 365 years.
24  Eʹnoch kept walking with the true God.+ Then he was no more, for God took him.+
25  Me·thuʹse·lah li
ved for 187 years and then became father to Laʹmech.+
26  After becoming father to Laʹmech, Me·thuʹse·lah l
ived for 782 years. And he became father to sons and daughters.
27 So all the days of Me·thuʹse·lah amounted to 969 years, and then he died.
28  Laʹmech l
I ved for 182 years and then became father to a son.
29  He named him Noah,*+ saying: “This one will bring us comfort* from our labor and from the
painful toil of our hands because of the ground that Jehovah has cursed.”+
30  After becoming father to Noah, Laʹmech lived for 595 years. And he became father to sons and daughters.
31  So all the days of Laʹmech amounted to 777 years, and then he died.
32  After Noah reached 500 years of age, he became father to Shem,+ Ham,+ and Jaʹ

Now when men starte
d to grow in number on the surface of the ground and daughters were born to them,
2  the sons of the true God*+ began to notice that the daughters of men were beautiful. So they began taking as wives all whom they chose.
3  Then Jehovah said: “My spirit will not tolerate man indefinitely,+ because he is only flesh.* Accordingly, his days will amount to 120 years.”+
4  The Nephʹi·lim* were on the earth in those days and afterward. During that time the sons of the true God continued to have relations with the daughters of men, and these bore sons to them. They were the mighty ones of
old times, the men of fame.
5  Consequently, Jehovah saw that
man ’s wickedness was great on the earth and that every inclination of the thoughts of his heart was only bad all the time.+
6  Jehovah regretted* that he had made men
on the earth, and his heart was saddened.*+
7  So Jehovah said: “I am
going to wipe men whom I have created off the surface of the ground, man together with domestic animals, creeping animals, and flying creatures of the heavens, for I regret that I have made them.”
8  But Noah found favor in the eyes of Jehovah.
9  This is the history of Noah. Noah was a righteous man.+ He proved himself faultless* among his contemporaries.* Noah walked with the true God.+
10  In time Noah became father to three sons, Shem, Ham, and Jaʹpheth.+
11  But the earth had become ruined in the sight of the true God, and the earth was filled with violence.
12  Yes, God looked upon the earth, and it was ruined;+ all flesh* had ruined its
way on the earth.+
13 After that God said to Noah: “I have decided to put an end to all flesh, because the earth is full of violence on account of them, so I am bringing them to ruin together with the earth.+
14  Make
for yourself an ark* from resinous wood .+ You will make compartments in the ark and cover it with tar*+ inside and outside.
15  This is how you will
make it: The ark should be 300 cubits* long, 50 cubits wide, and
30  cubits high.
16  You will make a window
for light* for the ark, one cubit from the top. You should put the entrance of the ark in its side+ and make it with a lowerdeck, a second deck, and a third deck.
17  “As f
or me, I am going to bring floodwaters+ upon the earth to destroy from under the heavens all flesh that has the breath of life.* Everything on the earth will perish.+
18  And I am establishing my
covenant with you, and you must go into the ark, you, your sons, your wife, and your sons’ wives with you.+
19  And bring in
to the ark two of every sort of living creature+ in order to preserve them alive with you, a male and a female;+
of the flying creatures according to their kinds ,
the domestic animals according to their kinds, and all creeping animals of the ground according to their kinds, two of each will go in there to you to preserve them alive.+
21  For your part, you are to collect and take with you every kind of food to eat,+ to serve
as food for you and for the animals.”
22  And Noah did according to all that God had commanded him. He d
id just so.+

fter that Jehovah said to Noah: “Go into the ark, you and all your household, because y ou
are the one I have found to be righteous before me among this generation.+
y ou must take with you every kind of clean animal by sevens,*+ the male and its mate; and of every animal that not clean just two, the male and its mate;
3  also of the flying creature
s of the sky by sevens,* male and female, to preserve their offspring alive over all the earth.+
4  For in just seven days, I
will make it rain+ on the earth for 40 days and 40 nights,+ and I will wipe from the surface ofthe ground ever living thing that I have made.”+
5  Then Noah did everything that Jehovah had commanded him.
6  Noah was 600
years old when the floodwaters came upon the earth.+
7 So Noah, along with it his sons, his wife, and his sons’ wives, went into the ark ahead of the floodwaters.+
8  Of every clean animal and of every animal that is not clean and of the flying creatures and of everything that moves on the
9  they we
nt inside the ark to Noah by twos, male and female, just as God had commanded Noah.
10  And seven days later the floodwaters came upon the earth.
11  In the 600th year of Noah’s life, in the second month, on the 17th day of the month, on that day all the springs of the vast watery deep burst open and the floodgates of the heavens were opened.+
12  And the rain poured down on the earth for 40 days and 40 nights.
13  On that very day, Noah went into
theark along with his sons, Shem, H am, and Jaʹpheth,+ and his wife and the three wives of his sons.+
14  They went in with every wild animal according to its kind, and every domestic anima
l according to its kind, and every creeping animal of the earth according to its kind, and every flying creature according to its kind, every bird, every winged creature.
15  They kept going to Noah inside the ark, two by two, of every sort of flesh that has the breath of life.*
16  So they went in,
male and female of every sort of flesh, just as God had commanded him. After that Jehovah shut the door behind him.
17  The flooding continued* for 40 days on the earth,
and the waters kept increasing and began carry the ark, and it was floating high above the earth.
18  The waters became overwhelming and kept increasing greatly upon the earth, but the ark floated on the surface o
f the waters.
19  The waters
overwhelm the earth so greatly that all the tall mountains
under the whole heavens were covered.+
20  The waters rose up to 15 cubits* above the mountains.
21  So all living creatures* that were moving on the earth per
is hed+—the flying creatures, the domestic animals, the wild animals, the swarming creatures, and all mankind.+
22  Everything on dry land
that ha d the breathuf life* in its nostrils died.+
23  So He wiped eve
ry living thing from the surface of the earth, including men , animals, creeping animals, and the flying creatures of the sky. They were all wiped off the earth;+ only Noah and those with him in the ark survived.+
24  And the waters continued overwhelming the earth f
or 150 days.+

But God gave attention to* Noah and to all the wild ani
mals and domestic animals that were with him in the ark,+ and God couldused a wind to blow over the earth, and the waters began to subside.
2  The springs of the watery deep and the floodgates of the hea
vens were stopped up, so the rain from the heavens stopped falling.*+
3  Then the waters began to recede progressively from the earth. By the en
dof 150 days, the waters had subsided.
4 In the seventh month, on the 17th day of the month, the ark came to rest on the mountains of Arʹa·rat.
5  And the waters were steadily decreasing until the tenth month. In the tenth month, on the first of the month, the tops of the mountains appeared.+
6  So at the end of 40 days, Noah opened the window+ that he had made in the ark
7  and sent out a raven; it continued flying outside and returning, until the waters dried off the earth.
8  Later he sent out a dove to see whether the waters had receded from the surface of the ground.
9  The dove did not find any resting-place to perch,* so it returned to him into the ark because the waters were still covering the surface of the whole earth.+ So he reached his hand out and brought it inside the ark.
10  He waited seven more days, and once again he sent out the dove from the ark.
11  When the dove came to him toward evening, he saw that there was a freshly plucked olive leaf in its bill! So Noah knew that the waters had receded from the earth.+
12  He waited still another seven days. Then he sent out the dove, but it did not return to him anymore.
13  Now in the 601st year,+ in the first month, on the first day of the month, the waters had drained from the earth; and Noah removed the covering of the ark and saw that the surface of the ground was drying.
14  In the second month, on the 27th day of the month, the earth had dried off.
15  God now said to Noah:
16  “Go out of the ark, you, your wife, your sons, and your sons’ wives.+
17  Bring out with you all the living creatures of every sort of flesh,+ of the flying creatures and of the animals and of all the creeping animals of the earth, that they may multiply* on the earth and be fruitful and become many on the earth.”+
18  So Noah went out, together with his sons,+ his wife, and his sons’ wives.
19  Every living creature, every creeping animal and every flying creature, everything that moves on the earth, went out of the ark by families.+
20  Then Noah built an altar+ to Jehovah and took some of all the clean animals and of all the clean flying creatures+ and offered burnt offerings on the altar.+
21  And Jehovah began to smell a pleasing* aroma. So Jehovah said in his heart: “Never again will I curse* the ground+ on man’s account, for the inclination of the heart of man is bad from his youth up;+ and never again will I strike down every living thing as I have done.+
22  From now on, the earth will never cease to have seed-sowing and harvest, cold and heat, summer and winter, and day and night.”+

God went on to
bless Noah and his sons and to say to them: “Be fruitful and become many and fill the earth.+
2  A fear of you and a terror of you will continue upon every living creature of the earth and upon every flying creature of the heavens, upon everything that moves on the ground and upon all the fish of the sea. They are now given into your hand.*+
3  Every moving animal that is alive may serve as food for you.+ Just as I gave you the green vegetation, I give them all to you.+
4  Only flesh with its life*—its blood+—you must not eat.+
5  Besides that, I will demand an accounting for your lifeblood.* I will demand an accounting from every living creature; and from each man I will demand an accounting for the life of his brother.+
6  Anyone shedding man’s blood, by man will his own blood be shed,+ for in God’s image He made man.+
7  As for you, be fruitful and become many, and increase abundantly on the earth and multiply.”+
8  Then God said to Noah and to his sons with him:
9  “I am now establishing my covenant with you+ and with your offspring after you,
10  and with every living creature* that is with you, the birds, the animals, and all the living creatures of the earth with you, all those that came out of the ark—every living creature of the earth.+
11  Yes, I establish my covenant with you: Never again will all flesh* be destroyed by the waters of a flood, and never again will a flood bring the earth to ruin.”+
12  And God added: “This is the sign of the covenant that I am making between me and you and every living creature* that is with you, for all future generations.
13  I put my
rains bow in the cloud, and it will serve as a sign of the covenant between me and the earth.
14  Whenever I br
ing a cloud over the earth, then the rainbow will certainly appear in the cloud.
15  And I will certainly remember my covenant that I made between me and you and every living creature of every kind;* and never again will the waters become a flood to destroy all
16  And the
rainbow will occur in the cloud, and
I will certainly see it and remember the everlastin g covenant between God and every living creature of every kind* on the earth.”
17  God repeated to Noah: “This is the sign of the covenant that I establish between me and all flesh that is on the earth.”+
18  Noah’s sons who came out of
the ark were Shem, Ham, and Jaʹpheth.+ Ham later became the father of Caʹnaan.+
19  These three were Noah’s
sons, and all the earth’s population came from them and spread abroad.+
20  Now Noah started off as a farmer, and he planted a vineyard.
21  When he drank of
the wine, he became into xicated, and he uncovered himself inside his tent.
22  Ham,
the father of Caʹnaan, saw his father’s nakedness, and he told his two brothers outside.
23  So Shem a
nd Jaʹpheth took a garment and put it upon both their shoulders and walked in backward. Thus they covered their father’s nakedness while their faces we re turned away, and they did not see their father’s nakedness.
24  When Noah woke up from his wine and learned what his youngest son had done to him,
25  he said: “Cursed be Caʹnaan.+ Let him become the lowest sla
ve to his brothers.”+
26  And
he added:
“Praised be Jehovah, the God of Shem, And let Caʹnaan become a slave to him.+
27  Let God grant ample space to Jaʹpheth, And let him reside in the tents of Shem. Let Caʹnaan become a slave to him also.”
28  Noah continued to live for 350 years after the Flood.+
29  So all the days of Noah amounted to 950 years, and he died.

This is the history of Noah’s sons, Shem,+ Ham, and Jaʹpheth. Sons
were born to them after the Flood.+
2  The sons of Jaʹpheth were Goʹmer,+ Maʹgog,+ Maʹda·
i, Jaʹvan, Tuʹbal,+ Meʹshech,+ and Tiʹras.+
3  The sons of Goʹmer were Ashʹke·naz,+ Riʹphath, an
d Togarʹmah.+
4  The
sons of Jaʹvan were E·liʹshah,+ Tarʹshish,+ Kitʹtim,+ and Doʹda·nim.
5  From these the inhabitants of the islands spread into their lands, ac
cording to their languages and their families and by their nations.
6  The sons
of Ham were Cush, Mizʹra·im,+ Put,+ and Caʹnaan.+
7  The sons of Cush were Seʹba,+ Havʹi·lah, Sabʹtah, Raʹa·mah,+ and Sabʹte·ca. The sons of Raʹa·mah were Sheʹba and Deʹdan.
8  Cush became father to Nimʹrod. He was the first to become a mighty one on the earth.
9  He became a mighty hunter
in opposition to Jehovah. That is why there is a saying: “Just like Nimʹrod, a mighty hunter in opposition to Jehovah.”
The beginning of his kingdom was* Baʹbel,+ Eʹrech,+ Acʹcad, and Calʹneh, in the land of Shiʹnar.+

11  From that land he went into
As·syrʹi·a+ and built Ninʹe·veh,+ Re·hoʹboth-Ir, Caʹlah,
12  and Reʹsen, between Ninʹe·veh and Caʹlah: This is
the great city.*
13  Mizʹra·im became father to Luʹdim,+ Anʹa·mim, Le·haʹbim, Naph·tuʹhim,+
14  Path·ruʹsim,+ Cas·luʹhim (from whom the Phi·lisʹtines+ came), and Caphʹto·rim.+
15  Caʹnaan became father to Siʹdon,+ his firstborn, and Heth,+
16  as well as the Jebʹu·site,+ the Amʹor·ite,+ the
17  the Hiʹvite,+ the Arkʹite, the Siʹnite,
18  the Arʹvad·ite,+ the Zemʹa·rite, and the Haʹmath·ite.+ Afterward, the families
of the Caʹnaan·ites we rescattered.
19  So the boundary of the Caʹnaan·ites was from Siʹdon as far as Geʹrar,+ near Gazʹa,+ as far as Sodʹom, Go·morʹrah,+ Adʹmah, and Ze·boiʹim,+ near Laʹsha.
20  These were the sons of Ham according to their fami
lies and their languages , by their lands and their nations.
21  Children were a
lso born to Shem, the forefather of all the sons of Eʹber+ and the brother of Jaʹpheth the oldest.*
22  The sons of Shem were Eʹlam,+ Asʹshur,+ Ar·pachʹshad,+ Lud, and Aʹram.+
23  The sons of Aʹram were Uz, Hul, Geʹther, and Mash.
24  Ar·pachʹshad became father to Sheʹlah,+ and Sheʹlah became father to Eʹber.
25  Two sons were born to Eʹber. The name of the one was Peʹle
g,*+ because in his lifetime the earth* was divided. The name of his brother was Jokʹtan.+
26  Jokʹtan became father to Al·moʹdad, Sheʹleph, Ha·zar·maʹveth, Jeʹrah,+
27  Ha·doʹram, Uʹzal, Dikʹlah,
28  Oʹbal, A·bimʹa·el, Sheʹba,
29  Oʹphir,+ Havʹi·lah, and Joʹbab; all of these were the sons of Jokʹtan.
30  Their place of dwellin
g extended from Meʹsha as far as Seʹphar, the mountainous region of the East.
31  These were the sons of Shem according to their families and their languages, by their lands and their nations.+
32  These were the families of the sons of Noah according to their family lines and by their nations.

From these the nations were spread abroad in the earth after the Flood.+ Now all the earth continued to be of one language and of one set of words.*
2  As they traveled eastward, they discovered a valley plain in the land of Shiʹnar,+ and they began dwelling there.
3  Then they said to one another: “Come! Let us make bricks and bake them with fire.” So they used bricks instead of stone, and bitumen as mortar.
4  They now said: “Come! Let us build a city
for ourselves and a tower with its top in the heavens, and let us make a celebrated name for ourselves, so that we will not be scattered over the entire face of the earth.”+
5  Then Jehov
ah went down to see the city and the tower that the sons of men had built.
6  Jehovah then said: “Look! The
y are one people with one language,+ and this is what they have started to do. Now there is nothing that they may have in mind to do that will be impossible for them.
7  Come! Let us+ go down there and
confuse their language in order that they may not understand one another’s language.”
8  So Jehovah scattered them from there over the entire face of the earth,+ and they gradually left off building the city.
9  That is why it was named Baʹbel,*+ because there Jehovah confused the language of all the earth, and Jehovah scattered them from there over the entire face of the earth.
10  This is the history of Shem.+ Shem was 100 years old when he became father to Ar·pachʹshad+ two years after the Flood.
11  After becoming father to Ar·
pachʹshad, Shem continued to live 500 years. And he became father to sons and daughters.
12  Ar·pachʹshad lived for 35 years and then became father to Sheʹlah.+
13  After becoming father to Sheʹlah, Ar·pachʹshad continued to live 403 years. And he became father to sons and daughters.
14  Sheʹlah lived for 30 years and then became father to Eʹber.+
15  After becoming father to Eʹber, Sheʹlah continued to live 403 years. And he became father to sons and daughters.
16  Eʹber lived for 34 years and then became father to Peʹleg.+
17  After becoming father to Peʹleg, Eʹber continued to live 430 years. And he became father to sons and daughters.
18  Peʹleg lived for
30  years and then became father to Reʹu.+
19  After becoming father to Reʹu, Peʹleg continued to live 209 years. And he became father to sons and daughters.
20  Reʹu lived for 32 years and then became father to Seʹrug.
21  After becoming father to Seʹrug, Reʹu continued to live 207 years. And he became father to sons and daughters.
22  Seʹrug lived for 30 years and then became father to Naʹhor.
23  After becoming father to Naʹhor, Seʹrug continued to live 200 years. And he became father to sons and daughters.
24  Naʹhor lived for 29 years and then became father to Teʹrah.+
25  After becoming father to Teʹrah, Naʹhor continued to live 119 years. And he became father to sons and daughters.
26  Teʹrah lived for 70 years, after which he became father to Aʹbram,+ Naʹhor,+ and Haʹran.
27  This is the history of Teʹrah. Teʹrah became father to Aʹbram, Naʹhor, and Haʹran; and Haʹran became father to Lot.+
28  While his father Teʹrah was still alive, Haʹran died in the land of his birth, in Ur+ of the Chal·deʹans.+
29  Aʹbram and Naʹhor took wives for themselves. The name of Aʹbram’s wife was Sarʹai,+ and the name of Naʹhor’s wife was Milʹcah,+ the daughter of Haʹran, the father of Milʹcah and Isʹcah.
30  Now Sarʹai was barren;+ she had no child.
31  Teʹrah then took Aʹbram his son and Lot his grandson,+ the son of Haʹran, and Sarʹai his daughter-in-law, the wife of Aʹbram his son, and they went with him out of Ur of the Chal·deʹans to go to the land of Caʹnaan.+
In time they came to Haʹran+ and began dwelling there.
32  The days of Teʹrah were 205 years. Then Teʹrah died in Haʹran.

And Jehovah said to Aʹbram: “Go out from your land and away from your relatives and from the house of your father to the land that I will show you.+
2  I will make you a great nation, and I will bless you, and I will make your name great, and you will become a blessing.+
3  I will bless those who bless you, and I will curse him who calls down evil on you,+ and all the families of the ground will certainly be blessed* by means of you.”+
4  So Aʹbram went just as Jehovah had told him, and Lot went with him. Aʹbram was 75 years old when he left Haʹran.+
5  Aʹbram took his wife Sarʹai+ and Lot the son of his brother+ and all the goods that they had accumulated+ and the people* whom they had acquired in Haʹran, and they set out for the land of Caʹnaan.+ When they reached the land of Caʹnaan,
6  Aʹbram traveled through the land as far as the site of Sheʹchem,+ near the big trees of Moʹreh.+ At that time the Caʹnaan·ites were in the land.
7  Jehovah then appeared to Aʹbram and said: “To your offspring*+ I am going to give this land.”+ So he built an altar there to Jehovah, who had appeared to him.
8  Later he moved from there to the mountainous region east of Bethʹel+ and pitched his tent with Bethʹel on the west and Aʹi+ on the east. There he built an altar to Jehovah+ and began to call on the name of Jehovah.+
9  Afterward, Aʹbram broke camp and journeyed toward the Negʹeb,+ moving his camp from one place to another.
10  Now a famine arose in the land, and Aʹbram went down toward Egypt to reside there for a while,*+ because the famine in the land was severe.+
11  As he was about to enter Egypt, he said to his wife Sarʹai: “Please listen! I
know what a beautiful woman you are.+
12  So when
the Egyptians see you, they will surely say, ‘This is his wife.’ Then they will kill me but keep you alive.
13  Plea
se say you are my sister, so that it may go well with me because of you, and my life will be spared.”*+
14  As soon as Aʹbram entered Egypt, the Egyptians noticed that the woman was very beautiful.
15  And the princes of Pharʹaoh also saw her, and they began praising her to Pharʹaoh, so that the woman was taken to the house of Pharʹaoh.
16  He treated Aʹbram well because of her, and he acquired sheep, cattle, male and female
donkeys, male and female servants, and camels.+
17  Then Jehovah struck Pharʹaoh and his household with severe plagues because of Sarʹai, Aʹbram’s wife.+
18  So Pharʹaoh called Aʹbram and said: ''
What is this you have done to me? Why did you not tell me that she was your wife?
19  Why did you say, ‘She is my sister,’+ so that I was about to take her as my wife? Here is your wife. Take her and
20  So P
harʹaoh gave his men orders concerning him, and they sent him away with his wife and all that he had.+

Aʹbram then went up out of Egypt to the Negʹeb,+ he and his wife and all that he had, together with Lot.
2  Aʹbram was very rich in livestock, silver, and gold.+

3 He camped in one place after another as he traveled from the Negʹeb to Bethʹel, until he arrived at the place where his tent had been between Bethʹel and Aʹi,+
4  to the place where he had previou
sly built an altar. There Aʹbram called on the name of Jehovah.
5  Now Lot, who w
as traveling with Aʹbram, also owned sheep, cattle, and tents.
6  So the land did not allow for all of them to stay in the same place; their goods had become so many that they could no longer dwell together.
7  As a result, a quarrel arose between the herders of Aʹbram’s livestoc
k and the herders of Lot’s livestock. (At that time the Caʹnaan·ites and the Perʹiz·zites were dwelling in the land.)+
8  So Aʹbra
m said to Lot:+ “Please, there should be no quarreling between me and you and between my herdsmen and your herdsmen, for we are brothers.
9  Is not the whole land available to you? Please, separate from me. If you go to the left, then I will go to the right; but if you go to the right, then I will go to the left.”
10  So Lot raised his eyes and saw that the whole district of the
jordan+ was a well-watered region (before Jehovah destroyed Sodʹom and Go·morʹ rah), like the garden of Jehovah,+ like the land of Egypt, as far as Zoʹar.+
11  Th
en Lot chose for himself the whole district of the Jordan, and Lot moved his camp to the east. So they separated from each other.
12  Aʹbram lived in the land of Caʹnaan, but Lot lived among the cities of the district.+ Finally he set up his tent near Sodʹom.
13  Now the men of Sodʹom were wicked, gross sinners against Jehovah.+
14  Jehovah said to Aʹbram, after Lot had separated from him: “Raise your eyes, please, and look from the place where you are, to the north and south, east and west,
15  because all the land that you see, I will give to you and your offspring* as a lasting possession.+
16  And I will make your offspring*
like the dust particles of the earth, so that if anyone could count the dust particles of the earth, then your offspring* could be counted.+
17  Get up, travel through the length and breadth of the land, for to you I a
m going to give it.”
18  So Aʹbram continued to live in tents. Later he came and dwelled among the big trees of Mamʹre,+ which are in Hebʹron,+ and there he built an altar to Jehovah.+

Now in the days of Amʹra·
phel king of Shiʹnar,+ Arʹi·och king of El·laʹsar, Ched·or·la·oʹmer+ king of Eʹlam,+ and Tiʹdal king of Goiʹim,
2  these made war with Beʹra king of Sodʹom,+ Birʹsha king of Go·morʹrah,+ Shiʹnab king of Adʹmah, Shem·eʹber king of Ze·boiʹim,+ and the king of Beʹla, that is, Zoʹar.
3  All of these joined forces at the Valley* of Sidʹdim,+ that is, the Salt Sea.*+
4  They had served Ched·or·la·oʹmer for 12 years, b
ut they rebelled in the 13th year.
5  So in the 14th year, Ched·or·la·oʹmer and the king
s who were with him came and defeated the Rephʹa·im in Ashʹte·roth-kar·naʹim, the Zuʹzim in Ham, the Eʹmim+ in Shaʹveh-kir·i·a·thaʹim,
6  and the Horʹites+ in their mountain of Seʹir+ down to El-paʹran, which is at the wilderness.
7  Then they turned
back and came to En-mishʹpat, that is, Kaʹdesh,+ and conquered the whole territory of the A·malʹek·ites+ and also the Amʹor·ites+ who were dwelling in Hazʹa·zon-taʹmar.+
8  At this point, the king of Sodʹom went on the march, and also the king of Go·morʹrah, the king of Adʹmah, the king of Ze·boiʹim, and the king of Beʹla, that is, Zoʹar, and they drew up in battle formation against them in the Valley* of Sidʹdim,
9  against Ched·or·la·oʹmer king of Eʹlam, Tiʹdal king of Goiʹim, Amʹra·phel king of Shiʹnar, and Arʹi·och king of El·laʹsar+—four kings against the fi
10  Now
the Valley* of Sidʹdim was full of bitumen pits, and the kings of Sodʹom and Go·morʹrah tried to escape and fell into them, and those who remained fled to the mountainous region.
11  Then the victors took all the goods of Sodʹom and Go·morʹrah and all their food and went on their way.+
12  They also took Lot, the son of Aʹbram’s brother who was dwelling in Sodʹom,+ as well as his goods, and they continued on their way.
13  After that a man who had escaped came and told Aʹbram the Hebrew. He was then dwelling* among the big trees of Mamʹre the Amʹor·ite,+ the brother of Eshʹcol and Aʹner.+ These men were allies of Aʹbram.
14  Thus Aʹbram heard that his relative*+ had been taken captive. With that he mobilized his trained men, 318
servants born in his household, and went in pursuit up to Dan.+
15  Durin
g the night, he divided his forces, and he and his servants attacked and defeated them. And he pursued them up to Hoʹbah, which is north of Damascus.
16 He recovered all the goods, and he also recovered Lot his relative, his goods, the women, and the other people.
17  After Aʹbram returned from defeating Ched·or·la·oʹmer and the kings who were with him, the king of Sodʹom went out to meet Aʹbram at the Valley* of Shaʹveh, that is, the Valley of the King.+
18  And Mel·chizʹe·dek+ king of Saʹlem+ brought out bread and wine; he was priest of the Most High God.+
19  Then he blessed him and said: “Blessed be Aʹbram by the Most High God, Maker of heaven and earth;
20  And praised be the Most High God, Who has handed your oppressors over to you!” And Aʹbram gave him a tenth of everything.+
21  After that the king of Sodʹom said to Aʹbram: “Give me the people,* but take the goods for yourself.”
22  But Aʹbram said to the king of Sodʹom: “I raise my hand in an oath to Jehovah the Most High God, Maker of heaven and earth,
23  that
I will not take anything that is yours, from a thread to a sandal lace, so that you may not say, ‘I made Aʹbram rich.’
24  I will ta
ke nothing except what the young men have already eaten. As for the share of the men who went with me, Aʹner, Eshʹcol, and Mamʹre+—let them take their share.”

After this the word of Jehovah
came to Aʹbram in a vision, saying: “Do not fear,+ Aʹbram. I am a shield for you.+ Your reward will be very great.”+
2  Aʹbram replied: “Sovereign Lord Jehovah,
what will you give me, seeing that I continue childless and the one who will inherit my house is a man of Damascus, E·li·eʹzer?”+
3  Aʹbram ad
ded: “You have given me no offspring,*+ and a member* of my household is succeeding me as heir.”
4  But look! Jehovah’s word i
n reply to him was, “This man will not succeed you as heir, but your own son* will succeed you as heir.”+
5 He now brought him outside and said: “Look up, please, to the heavens and count the stars, if you are able to do so.” Then he said to him: “So your offspring* will become.”+
6  And he put
faith in Jehovah,+ and He counted* it to him as righteousness.+
7  Then he a
dded: “I am Jehovah, who brought you out of Ur of the Chal·deʹans to give you this land as your possession.”+
8  To
this he said: “Sovereign Lord Jehovah, how will I know that I will take possession of it?”
9  He replied to him: “Take for me a three-year-old heifer, a three-year-old female
goat, a three-year-old ram, a turtledove, and a young pigeon.”
10  So he took all of these and cut them in two and put each part opposite the other,* but he did not cut up the birds.
11  Then the birds of prey began to descend on the carcasses, but Aʹbram kept driving them away.
12  When the sun was about to set, a deep sleep fell upon Aʹbram and a great and frightening darkness descended on him.
13  Then He said to Aʹbram: “Know for certain
that your offspring* will be foreigners in a land not theirs and that the people there will enslave them and afflict them for 400 years.+
14  But
I will judge the nation they will serve and after that they will go out with many goods.+
15  As for you, you will go to your forefathers in peace; you will
be buried at a good old age.+
16  But they will return here+ in the fourth generation, be
cause the error of the Amʹor·ites has not yet reached its full measure.”+
17 When the sun had set and it had become very dark, a smoking furnace appeared, and a fiery torch passed between the pieces.
18  On that day Jehovah made with Aʹbram a covenant,+ saying: “To your offspring* I will give th
is land,+ from the river of Egypt to the great river, the river Eu·phraʹtes:+
19  the la
nd of the Kenʹites,+ the Kenʹiz·zites, the Kadʹmon·ites,
the Hitʹtites,+ the Perʹiz·zites,+ the Rephʹa·im,+
21  the Amʹor·ites, the Caʹnaan·ites, the Girʹga·shites, and the Jebʹu·sites.”+

Now Aʹbram’s wife Sarʹai had borne him no children,+ but she had an Egyptian servant whose name was Haʹgar.+
2  So Sarʹai said to Aʹbram: “Please now! Jehovah has prevented me from bearing children. Please, have relations with my servant. Perhaps I can have children by means of her.”+ So Aʹbram listened to what Sarʹai said.
3  After Aʹbram had lived for ten years in the land of Caʹnaan, Aʹbram’s wife Sarʹai too
k her Egyptian servant Haʹgar and gave her to her husband Aʹbram as his wife.
4  So he had relations with Haʹgar, and she became pregnant. When she realized that she was pregnant, she began to despise her mistress.
5  At this Sarʹai said to Aʹbram: “The injury done to me is your fault. I was the one who put my servant in your arms,* but when she realized that she was pregnant, she began to despise me. May Jehovah judge between me and you.”
6  So Aʹbram said to Sarʹai: “Look! Your servant is under your authority. Do to her whatever you think is best.” Then Sarʹai humiliated her, and she ran away from her.
Later Jehovah’s angel found her at a spring of waters in the wilderness, the spring on the way to Shur.+
8  And he sai
d: “Haʹgar, servant of Sarʹai, where have you come from and where are you going?” To this she said: “I am running away from my mistress Sarʹai.”
9  Jehovah’s angel then said to her: “Return to your mistress and humble yourself under her hand.”
10  Then Jehovah’s angel said: “I will greatly multiply your offspring,* so that they will be too nu
merous to count.”+
11  Jehovah’s
angel added: “Here you are pregnant, and you will give birth to a son, and you must name him Ishʹma·el,* for Jehovah has heard your affliction.
12  He will be a wild donkey* of a
man. His hand will be against everyone, and everyone’s hand will be against him, and he will dwell opposite all his brothers.”*
13  Then she called on the name of Jehovah, who was speaking to her: “You are a God of sight,”+ for she said: “Have I here actually looked upon the one who sees me?”
14  That is why the well was called Beʹer-laʹhai-roi.* (It is between Kaʹdesh and Beʹred.)
15  So Haʹgar bore to Aʹbram a son, and Aʹbram named his son, whom Haʹgar bore, Ishʹma·el.+
16  Aʹbram was 86 years old when Haʹgar bore Ishʹma·el to him.

When Aʹbram was 99
years old, Jehovah appeared to Aʹbram and said to him: “I am God Almighty. Walk before me and prove yourself faultless.*
2 I will establish my covenant between me and you,+ and I will multiply you very, very much.”+
3  At
this Aʹbram fell facedown, and God continued to speak with him, saying:
4  “As fo
r me, look! my covenant is with you,+ and you will certainly become a father of many nations.+
5  Your name will no lon
ger be Aʹbram;* your name will become Abraham,* for I will make you a father of many nations.
6  I will make you very, very fruitful and will make you become nations, and kings will come from you.+
7  “And I will keep my covenant between me and you+ and your offspring* after you
throughout their generations for an everlasting covenant, to be God to you and to your offspring* after you.
8  And I will give to you and to your offspring* after you the land in which you lived as a foreigner+—the entire land of Caʹnaan—for a lasting possession, and I will be their God.”+
9  God said further to Abraham: “As for you, you are to keep my covenant, you and your offspring* after you throughout their generations.
10  This is my covenant between me and you, that you and your offspring* after you will keep: Every male among you must get circumcised.+
11  You must circumcise the flesh of your foreskins, and it will serve as a sign of the covenant between me and you.+
12  Throughout your generations, every male among you eight days old must be circumcised,+ anyone who is born in the
house and anyone who is not one of your offspring* and who was purchased with money from a foreigner.
13  Every man born in your house and every man purchase
d with your money must be circumcised,+ and my covenant in your flesh must serve as a lasting covenant.
14  If any unci
rcumcised male will not circumcise the flesh of his foreskin, that person* must be cut off* from his people. He has broken my covenant.”
15  Then Go
d said to Abraham: “As for your wife Sarʹai,*+ you must not call her Sarʹai, because Sarah* will become her name.
16  I will bless her and also gi
ve you a son by her;+ I will bless her and she will become nations; kings of peoples will come from her.”
17  At this Abraham fell facedown and began to laugh and to say in his heart:+ “Will a man 100 years old have a child born to him, and will Sarah, a woman 90 years old, give birth?”+
18  So Abraham said to the true God: “O that Ishʹma·el might live before you!”+
19  To this God said: “Your wife Sarah will
definitely bear you a son, and you must name him Isaac.*+
And I will establish my covenant with him for an everlasting covenant to his offspring* after him.+
20  But as regards Ishʹma·el,
I have heard you. Look! I will bless him and will make him fruitful and will multiply him very, very much. He will produce 12 chieftains, and I will make him become a great nations.+
21  However, I will establish my covenant with Isaac,+ whom Sarah will bear to you at this appointed time next year.”+
22  When God finished speaking with him, he went up from Abraham.
23  Abraham then took Ishʹma·el his son and all the men born in his house and everyone he had purchased with money, every male in the household of Abraham, and he circumcised the flesh of their foreskins on that very
day, just as God had spoken with him.+
24  Abraham was 99 years old whe
n he had the flesh of his foreskin circumcised.+
And Ishʹma·el his son was
13  years old when he had the
flesh of his foreskin circumcised.+
26  On that very day, Abraham was circumcised and also his son Ishʹma·el.
27  All the men of his household, anyone bo
rn in the house and anyone purchased with money from a foreigner, were also circumcised with him.

Afterward, Jehovah+ appeared to him among the big trees of Mamʹre+ while he was sitting at the entrance of the tent during the hottest part of the day.

2 He looked up and saw three men standing some distance from him.+ When he saw them, he ran from the entrance of the tent to meet them, and he bowed down to the ground.
3  Then he said: “Jehovah, if I have found favor in your eyes, please do not pass by your servant.
4  Please, let a little water be brought and have your feet washed;+ then recline under the tree.
5  Seeing that you have come here to your servant, let me bring a piece of bread so that you may refresh yourselves.* Then you may
go on your way.” At this they said: “All right. You may do as you have spoken.”
6  So Abr
aham hurried to the tent to Sarah and said: “Quick! Get three measures* of fine flour, knead the dough, and make loaves of bread.”
7  Next Abraham ran to the herd and chose a tender and good young bull. He gave it to the attendant, who hurried to prepare it.
8  He then took butter and milk and the young bull that he had prepared and
set the food before them. Then he stood by them under the tree as they were eating.+
9  They said to hi
m: “Where is your wife Sarah?”+ He replied: “Here in the tent.”
10  S
o one of them continued: “I will surely return to you next year at this time, and look! your wife Sarah will have a son.”+ Now Sarah was listening at the tent entrance, which was behind the man.
11  Abraham and Sarah were old, bein
g advanced in years.+ Sarah was past the age of childbearing.*+
12  So Sarah b
egan to laugh to herself, saying: “After I am worn out and my lord is old, will I really have this pleasure?”+
13  Then Jehovah said to Abraham: “Why did Sarah laugh and say, ‘Am I really going to give birth even though I am old?’
14  Is anything too extraordinary for Jehovah?+ I will return to you next year at this appointed time, and Sarah will
have a son.”
15  But Sarah denie
d it, saying, “I did not laugh!” for she was afraid. At this he said: “Yes! You did laugh.”
16 When the men got up to leave and looked down toward Sodʹom,* Abraham was walking with them to escort them.
17  Jehovah said: “Am I keeping hidden from Ab
raham what I am going to do?+
18  Why, Abraham is s
urely going to become a great and mighty nation, and all the nations of the earth will be blessed* by means of him.+
19  Fo
r I have come to know him in order that he may command his sons and his household after him to keep Jehovah’s way by doing what is right and just,* so that
Jehovah may bring about what he has promised concerning Abraham.”
20  Then Jehovah said: “The outcr
y against Sodʹom and Go·morʹrah is indeed great,+ and their sin is very heavy.+
21  I will go down to see whether they are acting according to the outcry that has reached me. And if not, I can get to know it.”+
22  Then the men left from there and went toward Sodʹom,
but Jehovah+ remained with Abraham.
23  Then Abraham approached and said: “Will you reall
y sweep away the righteous with the wicked?+
24  Suppose there are 50 r
ighteous men within the city. Will you, then, sweep them away and not pardon the place for the sake of the 50 righteous who are inside it?
25  It is unthinkable that you would act in this manner by putting the ri
ghteous man to death with the wicked one so that the outcome for the righteous man and the wicked is the same!+ It is unthinkable of you.+ Will the Judge of all the earth not do what is right?”+
26  Then Jehovah said: “If I find in Sodʹom 50 righteous men in the city, I will pardon the whole place for their sake.”
27  But Abraham again responded: “Please, here I have presumed to speak to Jehovah, whereas I am dust and ashes.
28  Suppose the 50 righteous should lack five. Because of the five will
you destroy the whole city?”
To this he said: “I will not destroy it if I find there 45.”+
29  But yet again he
spoke to him and said: “Suppose 40 are found there.” He answered: “I will not do it for the sake of the 40.”
30  But he continued: “Jehovah, please, do not become hot with anger,+ but let me
go on speaking: Suppose only
are found there.” He answered: “I will not do it if I find
30  there.”
31  But he continued: “Please, here I have presumed to spea
k to Jehovah: Suppose only
20  are found there.” He
answered: “I will not destroy it for the sake of the 20.”
32  Finally he said: “Jehovah, please, do not become hot with anger, but
let me speak just once more: Suppose only ten are found there.” He answered: “I will not destroy it for the sake of the ten.”
33  When Jehovah finished speaking to Abraham, he went his way+ and Abraham returned
to his place.

The two angels arrive
d at Sodʹom by evening, and Lot was sitting in the gate of Sodʹom. When Lot saw them, he got up to meet them and bowed down with his face to the earth.+
2  And he s
aid: “Please, my lords, turn aside, please, into the house of your servant and stay overnight and have your feet washed. Then you may get up early and travel on your way.” To this they said: “No, we will stay overnight in the public square.”
3  But he was so insistent with them that they went with him to his house. Then he made a feast for them, and he baked unleavened bread, and they ate.
4  Before they could lie down to sleep, the men of the city—the men of Sodʹom
from boy to old man, all of them—surrounded
the house in one mob.
5  And they kept calling out to Lot and saying to him: “Whe
re are the men who came in to you tonight? Bring them out to us so that we may have sex with them.”+
6  The
n Lot went out to them to the doorway, and he shut the door behind him.
7  He said: “Please, my brothers, do not act wickedly.
8  Please, here I have two dau
ghters who have never had sexual relations with a man. Please, let me bring them out to you for you to do to them whatever seems good to you. But do not do anything to these men, for they have come under the shelter* of my roof.”+
9  At this they said: “Stand back!” And they
added: “This lone foreigner came to live here, and yet he dares to judge us! Now we are going to do worse to you than to them.” And they crowded in* on Lot and moved forward to break down the door.
10  So the
men reached out their hands and brought Lot into the house with them, and they shut the door.
11  But they struck the men who wer
e at the entrance of the house with blindness, from the least to the greatest, so that they wore themselves out trying to find the doorway.
12  Then the men said to Lot: “Do you ha
ve anyone else here? Sons-in-law, your sons, your daughters, and all your peo
ple in the city, bring out of this place!
13  For we are going to de
stroy this place, because the outcry against them has indeed grown great* before Jehovah,+ so that Jehovah sent us to destroy the city.”
14  So Lot
went out and began to speak to his sons in law who were to marry his daughters, and he kept saying: “Get up! Get out of this place, because Jehovah will destroy the city!” But to his sons-in-law, he seemed to be joking.+
15  As dawn was breaking, the angels be
came urgent with Lot, saying: “Get up! Take your wife and your two daughters who are here with you, so that you will not be swept away in the error of the city!”+
16 When he kept lingering, then because of Jehovah’s compassion for him,+ the men seized hold of his hand and the hand of his wife and the hands of his two daughters, and they brought him out and stationed him outside the city.+
17  As soon as they had brought them to the outskirts, he said: “Escape for your life!* Do not look behind you+ and do not stand still in any part of the district!+ Escape to the mountainous region so that you may not be swept away!”
18  Then Lot said to them: “Not there, please, Jehovah!
19  Please, now, your servant has found favor in your eyes and you are showing great kindness* to me by preserving me* alive,+ but
I am not able to flee to the mountainous region because I am afraid that disaster may overtake me and I will die.+
20  Please, now, this town is nearby and I can flee there; it is only a small place. May I, please, escape there? It is only a small place. Then I will survive.”*
21  So he said to him: “Very well, I will also show you consideration+ by not overthrowing the town you speak of.+
22  Hurry! Escape there, because I cannot do anything until you arrive there!”+ That is why he named the town Zoʹar.*+
23  The sun had risen over the land when Lot arrived at Zoʹar.
24  Then Jehovah made it
rain sulfur and fire on Sodʹom and Go·morʹrah—it came from Jehovah, from the heavens.+
25  So he overthrew these cities, yes, the entire
district, including all the inhabitants of the cities and the plants of the ground.+
26  But Lot’s
wife, who was behind him, began to look back, and she became a pillar of salt.+
27  Now Abraham got up early
in the morning and went to the place where he had stood before Jehovah.+
28  When he looked down toward Sodʹom and Go·morʹrah and all the land of the d
istrict, he saw quite a sight. There was dense smoke rising from the land like the dense smoke of a kiln!+
29  So when God destroyed the cities of the district, God kept Abraham in mind by sending Lot out from the cities he overthrew, the cities where Lot had been dwelling.+
30  Later Lot went up from Zoʹar with his two daughters and began living in the mountainous region,+ because he was afraid to live in Zoʹar.+ So he began living in a cave with his two daughters.

31 And the firstborn said to the younger: “Our father is old, and there is not a man in the land to have relations with us according to the custom of the whole earth.
32  Come, let us give our father wine to drink, and let us lie down with him and preserve offspring from our father.”
33  So that night they kept giving their father wine to drink; then the firstborn went in and lay down with her father, but he did not know when she lay down and when she got up.
34  Then on the next day, the firstborn said to the younger: “Here
I lay down with my father last night. Let us give him wine to drink tonight also. Then you go in and lie down with him, and let us preserve offspring from our father.”
35  So that night also, they repeatedly gave their father wine to drink; then the younger went and lay down with him,
but he did not know when she lay down and when she got up.
36  So both daughter
s of Lot became pregnant by their father.
37  The firstborn gave birth to a son and named him Moʹab.+ He is the father of the Moʹab·ites of today.+
38  The younger also gave birth to a son, and she named him Ben-amʹmi. He is the father of the Amʹmon·ites+ of today.

Now Abraham moved his camp from there+ to the land of the Negʹeb and began dwelling between Kaʹdesh+ and Shur.+ While he was residing* at Geʹrar,+
2  Abraham
repeated concerning his wife Sarah: “She is my sister.”+ So A·bimʹe·lech king of Geʹrar sent for Sarah and took her.+

3  Afterward, God came by night to A·bimʹe·lech in a dream and said to him: “Here you are as good as dead because of the woman whom you have taken,+ since she is married and belongs to another man.”+
4  However, A·bimʹe·lech had not gone near her.* So he said: “Jehovah, will you kill a nation that is really innocent?*
5  Did he not say to me, ‘She is my sister,’ and did she too not say, ‘He is my brother’?
I did this with an honest heart and innocent hands.”
6  Then the true God said to him in the dream: “I know that you did this with an honest heart, so I held you
back from sinning against me. That is why I did not allow you to touch her.
7  Now return the man’
s wife, for he is a prophet,+ and he will make supplication for you+ and you will keep living. But if you are not returning her, know that you will surely die, you and all who are yours.”
8  A·bimʹe·lech got up early in
the morning and called all his servants and told them all these things, and they became very frightened.
9  Then A·bimʹe·lech called Abraham and said t
o him: “What have you done to us? What sin have I committed against you that you would bring upon me and my kingdom such a great sin? What you have done to me was not right.”
10  And A·bimʹe·lech went on to say to Abraham: “What were your intentions when you did this thing?”+
11  Abraham said: “It was because I said to myself, ‘Surely there is no fear of God
in this place, and they will kill me because of my wife.’+
12  And besides, she
really is my sister, the daughter of my father but not the daughter of my mother, and she became my wife.+
13 So when God caused me to wander from the house of my father,+ I said to her: ‘Let this be how you show loyal love to me: Everywhere we go, say of me, “He is my brother.”’”+
14  A·bimʹe·lech then took sheep and cattle and male and female servants and gave them to Abraham, and he returned his wife Sarah to him.
15  A·bimʹe·lech also said: “Here my land is available to you. Dwell wherever you please.”
16  And to Sarah he said: “Here I give 1,000 pieces of silver to your brother.+ It is a sign of your innocence* to all who are with you and before everybody, and you are cleared of reproach.”
17  And Abraham began to make supplication to
the true God, and God healed A·bimʹe·lech and his wife and his slave girls, and they began having children;
18  for Jeh
ovah had made all the women of the house of A·bimʹe·lech barren* because of Sarah, Abraham’s wife.+

Jehovah turned his attention to Sarah just as he had said, and Jehovah did for Sarah what he had promised.+
2  So Sarah became pregnant+ and then bore a son to Abraham
in his old age at the appointed time God had promised him.+
3  Abraham named his newborn son, whom Sarah bore to him, Isaac.+
4  And Abraham circumcised his son Isaac when he was eight days old, just as God had commanded him.+
5  Abraham was 100 years old when his son Isaac was born to him.
6  Then Sarah said: “God has brought me laughter; everybody hearing o
f it will laugh with me.”*
7  And she added: “Who would have said to Ab
raham, ‘Sarah will certainly nurse children’?
Yet, I have given birth to a son for him in his old age.”
8  Now the child gr
ew and was weaned, and Abraham prepared a big feast on the day that Isaac was weaned.
9  But Sa
rah kept noticing that the son of Haʹgar+ the Egyptian, whom she had borne to Abraham, was mocking Isaac.+
10  So she said to Abraham: “Drive out this slave girl and her son, for the son of this slave girl is not going to be an heir along with my son, with Isaac!”+
11  But what she said about his son was very displeasing to Abraham.+

12 Then God said to Abraham: “Do not be displeased by what Sarah is saying to you about the boy and about your slave girl. Listen to her,* for what will be called your offspring* will be through Isaac.+
13  As for the son of the slave girl,+
I will also make a nation out of him,+ because he is your offspring.”*
14  So Abraham got up ear
ly in the morning and took bread and a skin bottle of water and gave it to Haʹgar. He set these on her shoulder and then sent her away along with the boy.+ So she departed and wandered about in the wilderness of Beʹer-sheʹba.+
15  Finally the water in the skin bottle was used up, and she pushed the boy under one of the bushes.
16  Then she went on and sat
down by herself, about the distance of a bowshot away, because she said: “I do not want to watch the boy die.” So she sat down at a distance and began to cry aloud and to weep.
17  At that God heard the voice of the boy,+ and God’s angel called to Haʹgar from the heavens and said to her:+ “What is the matter with you, Haʹgar? Do not be afraid, for God has heard the voice of the boy there where he is.
18  Get up, lift the boy and take hold of him with your hand, for I will make him a great nation.”+
19  Then God opened her eyes and she saw a well of water, and she went and filled the skin bottle with water and gave the boy a drink.
20  And God was with the boy+ as he grew up. He lived
in the wilderness and became an archer.
21  He took up dwelling in the wilderness of Paʹran,+ and his mother took a wi
fe for him from the land of Egypt.
22  At that time A·bimʹe·le
ch together with Phiʹcol the chief of his army said
to Abraham: “God is with you in everything you are doing.+
23  So now swear to me here by God that you will not deal falsely with me and with my offspring and with my descendants, and that you will deal with me and with the land where you have been residing with the same loyal love that I have shown you.”+
24  So Abraham said: “I swear to this.”
25  However, Abraham complained to A·bimʹe·lech about the well of water that the servants of A·bimʹe·lech had violently seized.+
26  A·bimʹe·lech replied: “I do not know who did this; you did not tell me about it, and I heard nothing about it until today.”
27  At that Abraham took sheep and cattle and
gave them to A·bimʹe·lech, and the two of them made a covenant.
28  When Abrah
am set seven female lambs apart from the flock by themselves,
29  A·bimʹe·lech s
aid to Abraham: “Why have you set these seven female lambs here by themselves?”
30  Then he said: “You are to accept the seven female lambs from my hand as a witness that I dug this well.”
31  That is why he called that place Beʹer-sheʹba,*+ because there both of them had ta
ken an oath.
32  So
they made a covenant+ at Beʹer-sheʹba, after which A·bimʹe·lech got up together with Phiʹcol the chief of his army, and they returned to the land of the Phi·lisʹtines.+
33 After that he planted a tamarisk tree at Beʹer-sheʹba, and there he called on the name of Jehovah,+ the everlasting God.+
34  And Abraham stayed* in the land of the Phi·lisʹtines for a long time.*+

Now after this the true
God put Abraham to the test,+ and he said to him: “Abraham!” to which he replied: “Here I am!”
2  Then he said: “Take, please, your so
n, your only son whom you so love,+ Isaac,+ and travel to the land of Mo·riʹah+ and offer him up there as a burnt offering on one of the mountains that I will designate to you.”
3  So Abraham got up early in the morning and saddled his don
key and took two of his servants along with him and his son Isaac. He split the wood for the burnt offering, and then he rose and traveled to the place that the true God indicated to him.
4  On the third day, Abraham looked up and saw the plac
e from a distance.
5  Abraham now said
to his servants: “You stay here with the donkey, but the boy and I will go over there and worship and return to you.”
6  So Abraham took the wood for the burnt offerin
g and put it on his son Isaac. Then he took in his hands the fire and the knife,* and the two of them walked on together.
7  Then Isaac said to his father Abraham: “My father!” He replied: “Yes, my son!” So he continued: “Here are the fire and the wood, but where is the sheep for the burnt offering?”
8  To this Abraham said: “God himself will provide the sheep for the burnt offering,+ my son.” And both of them walked on together.
9  Finally they reached the place that the true God had indicated to him, and Abraham built an altar there and arranged the wood on it. He bound his son Isaac hand and foot and put him on the altar on top of the wood.+
10  Then Abraham reached out his hand and took the knife* to kill his son.+
11  But Jehovah’s angel called to him from the heavens and said: “Abraham, Abraham!” to which he answered: “Here I am!”
12  Then he said: “Do
not harm the boy, and do not do anything at all to him, for now I do know that you are God-fearing because you have not withheld your son, your only one, from me.”+
13  At that Abraham looked up, and there just beyond him was a ram caught by its horns in a thicket. So Abraham went and took the ram and offered it up as a burnt offering in place of his son.
14  And Abraham named that place Je·hoʹ
vah-jiʹreh.* This is why it is still said today: “In the mountain of Jehovah it will be provided.”+
15  And Jehovah’s angel called to Abraham a second time from the heavens,
16  saying: “‘By myself I swear,’ declares Jehovah,+ ‘that because you have done this and you
have not withheld your son, your only one,+
17  I will surely bless you and I will surely multiply your offspring* like the stars of the heavens and like the grains of sand on the seashore,+ and your offspring* will take possession of the gate* of his enemies.+
18  And by means of your offspring*+ all nations of the earth will obtain a blessing for themselves because you have listened to my voice.’”+
19  After that Abraham returned to his servants, and they got up and went back together to Beʹer-sheʹba;+ and Abraham continued to dwell at Beʹer-sheʹba.
20  After this it was reported to Abraham: “Here Milʹcah has also borne sons to Naʹhor your brother:+
21  Uz his firstborn, Buz his brother, Kem·uʹel the father of Aʹram,
22  Cheʹsed, Haʹzo, Pilʹdash, Jidʹlaph, and Be·thuʹel.”+
23  Be·thuʹel became the father of Re·bekʹah.+ Milʹcah bore these eight to Naʹhor the brother of Abraham.
24  His concubine, whose name was Reuʹmah, also bore sons: Teʹbah, Gaʹham, Taʹhash, and Maʹa·cah.